Friday, September 9, 2016

SIFTERS + SATRAPS



 
SIFT         SHaFahDT          Shin-Phey-Tet
Shah-FAHT       שפט    [SH-F-DT à SFT]
ROOTS: SIFTING is associated so much with food preparation that we can forget  that SIFT means distinguishing the truth by careful examination.  “To make a careful examination” is the 3rd definition of the AHD -- no sieve or flour needed.  “Sift the evidence” (AHD) is the job of a judge, not a chef.

There is no “Indo-European root” for SIFT. Middle English siften can only be traced back to Old English siftan.

The portion of Shoftim (Judges, also the name of a Biblical book) begins  in Deuteronony  16:18  with the command to “appoint  judges(KJV and older JPS),  שפטים  SHoaFDTeeYM , who will שפטו   SHahFDTOO, “judge” (plural verb), a “righteous judgement ,”
משפט-צדק  MiSHPahDT-TSeDeQ.

   צדק
 TSeDeQ (righteous or just) may be parsed as  צד TSahD  (side -- see “SIDE”) + דק DahQ (fine, minute, thin -- see “ACUTE”). And so the SIFTER of evidence, or judge,  does have to SIFT as with a sieve through the two opposing sides of a legal case.


BRANCHES: SLAVIC sifters < שפט,  SHaPHahDT, to judge  
iSPiTa (investigate) -- Macedonian
iSPiTati (examine, sift, test, search, assay, investigate)
    -- Bosnian,   Croatian
iZViDJETi (investigate) -- Bosnian
PyTaCCa (inquire) -- Belarusian  M231
raSPiTati se (inquire) -- Bosnian, Croatian
VyŠeTriť , VyŠeTrovať (investigate, screen, find out, study, inquire)
      -- Slovak M213
VyŠeTrovat  (investigate, try, sound, inquire)
      -- Czech M213
ZaPiTvam (inquire) -- Bulgarian
ZBaDać (investigate, examine) -- Polish
ZePTat se (inquire) -- Czech

Other possible vestiges of שפט,  SHaPHahDT:
apšaubīt (question) -- Latvian M213
Ichoputa (investigate, verify) -- Igbo
Pētīt (investigate, delve) -- Latvian fricative drops
PyeS (interrogate) -- Albanian ß dental drops

Friday, September 2, 2016

HAPPINESS or SMUGNESS?



SMI(R)K                 SaMahK[H]                  Sin-Mem-Het
Some-AHKH              שמח        [S-M-KH à SM +R K]
ROOTS:    The Indo-European (IE) base of SMIRK,  a SMUG SMILE, is smei (to smile, be astonished); the alleged IE “root” is smei (to laugh, smile). 

The Hebrew Bible has no one–word SMILE term, but  שמח SaMah[K]H is to rejoice or be glad (Proverbs 17:5). שמח SaMayahK[H] is a joyful satisfaction (Deuteronomy 16:15). שמחה SiMK[H]aH is gladness (Genesis 31:27).
SMILING is hardly a common way to register “astonishment.” The AHD’s SM base for  “astonishment”  may be from  תמה TaMahH, to be astonished (Habakkuk 1:5) – which may be rendered  (S)aMahH. Like the ע  Ayin variant (as a vowel), this   תTahf variant (as an S)  is too globally verified to be limited to Ashkenazic Jews.   תמהון  (S)iMaHOAN is astonishment or amazement (Deuteronomy 28:28). 
 
פתאום  Pee(S)OWM (suddenly, Numbers 12:4) combines a P-T element from Pey-Sahf “opening”  words like  פת Poa(S),   פתעPe(S)[A]h (opening of the eyes, twinkling, thus a moment – Numbers 35:22) and   פתח   Pa(SA)a[K]H, with out   ת-ם Sahf-Mem root of astonishment.   
More S-M happiness at “SMUG.”

BRANCHES: SMIRK and Anglo-Saxon smercian (to smile) are from the same base as SMILE.  A Polish smirk  and smile is usmiech.  Many Slavic “laugh” words  are below.
The first Slavic speakers who gathered at Shinar (Sumer) after the Tower of  Babel and migrated to Eastern Europe associated “laughing” and “smiling” with “happiness.”
See entries like “LAUGH,”“CHUCKLE” and “RUNE” to see that most peoples  were thinking of the tone, not the emotion, of laughter.

SLAVIC LAUGHTER and SMILE  words from  שמח  SaMeyaK[H] (joyful)  [help from Altru Kveb ]
 
naSMEH (smile) -- Slovenian
naSMEVKa (smile) -- Macedonian
oSMEH (smile) -- Serbian
oSMIJEH  (smile) -- Bosnian, Croatian
SMeH  (laugh) --  Serbian, Slovenian
SMeKH  смех, (laughter)  -- Russian
SMÍCH (laugh) -- Czech
SMIECH (laugh) -- Belarusian, Slovak
ŚMIECH (laugh) -- Polish
SMIKH (laugh) -- Ukrainian
SMIJEH (laugh) --  Bosnian, Croatian
SMYAKH (laugh) -- Bulgarian
uSMISHKa (smile, sneer) -- Ukrainian
uSMIVKa (smile) -- Bulgarian
ŭSMIEŠKa (smile) - Belarusian


It’s astonishing to find SMK “smile” words  as far away as Chinese  shen X582  (M132) and Nepali muskaan (M213).  Bengali hasimukh is defined as “smiling face.”   If, as Webster's suggests, astonishment (as well as happiness) brings a smile to our lips, consider YeeSOAM ("shall be astonished" - Jeremiah 49;17). שמה SHaMaH means horror.  תמה ToaMaH, THoaMaH or (S)oaMaH is to be astounded or amazed or to wonder. THAUMATOLOGY is from Greek thauma (a miracle, a wonder), but this term is not linked to SMILE.
Official cognates of SMIRK include: ADMIRE, COMITY, MARVEL, MIRACLE, MIRAGE and MIRROR.
 Quechua (Inca) saami is  happy, lucky, blessed.

Mahigan (Amerind) schmeck (to laugh) may be a nasalized (extra M)  צחק TSaK[H]aQ (laugh) .  But more likely it is from שמחה our  SiMK[H]aH, happiness , like  all the Slavic “laughter” words  associated with happy smiles.   An example of an added L in Slavic involves  Czech  and Polish słońce (sun) < S-F S-N ) added ł or l, liquidization) שמש SHeMeSH, sun. Other Slavic “sun” do not have this added liquid.

There is no Lamed or Resh  in  שמח SaMeyaK[H] (joyful)  to give a liquid (L,R) to SMILE or SMIRK. See “below for other examples of added liquids (L,R). Liquids, L and R, are nowhere near as commonly added to historic roots as are M and N (Nasalization). But the examples below demonstrate that liquids, L and R, do get added to words, like SMIRK from SMK. Sin-Mem-Het.

ASPIRIN <  כסף Ke$ePH, silver… white [ASPIRIN]
BALSAM < בשם  BoaSeM, spices [BALSAM]
CALAMUS (feather pen) <  Arabic Qalam, stalk, reed < S-N   קנה 
    QaNeH, reed [CANE]
CARPAL (of the wrist) < Greek karpos, wrist < כף  KahPH, palm  of hand [CUFF].
CORPS, CORPSE and  words from IE “root” k(w)rep (body) are better traced to גוף  GOOPH,
  body, corpse   [CORPSE]
DIRT (no IE “root”; Middle English 1st def.  is mud < S-D +R  טיט 
    DTeeYDT, mud, mire, filth from the streets (Zachariah 9:3 )
FRIGHT > פחד  PahK[H]aD, fear (noun and verb)   [FRIGHT]
GOVERN <  כון  KeeVain, to direct [GOVERN]
PALM  (formerly paume)  <  פעם P[A]’ahM, palm of foot  [PALM]
SALSA – Spanish and Arabic salsa means gravy, many gravy/sause words
     are  S-S words < עסיס  [A]$eY$, juice  [SAUCE]
SLAUGHTER <  שחט SHaK[H]aDT ], to slaughter    [SLAUGHTER]
SLOUCH (no IE “root”), link the nasalized SI[N]K
     <  שוח SHOOah[K]H, sink  [SAG]
SPARK  <  M213 S-F, S-B  בזק   BeZeQ, a flash of lightning   [SPARK]
SPURT < שטף  SHaTAPH, to rinse, flood, flow or burst forth     [SPATE] or “BURST.”
STRIDE (step)  <  צעד TSa’[A]hD, to step (Genesis 49:22)  [PACE]
SWEAR  (English)  and German  schwören, to swear  <  S-B, added R  שבע 
         SHBa[A]h (to swear) [GOSPEL]
TERM < תם  ToaM  (completion )  [TIME]
THERMO- (Greek thermos, heat) <  חם [K]HahM, heat [CALM]

At “CAP” are many non-English words that have an L or R added.  Also see “ROBOT”
and "SPEECH." In Swedish there is an extra R (Liquidization): f[r]ukta <  פחד FaK[H]ahD,fear [FEAR]
Basque has several added Rs, including arte  (until) <   S-D  עד  [A]hD, until; also (if not a Vav to R shift)    horma, wall, from  חומה , wall.